Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Type 1 diabetes arises from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, leading to insulin deficiency, while Type 2 diabetes typically involves insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Other forms, such as gestational diabetes or monogenic diabetes, have distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism contributes to microvascular and macrovascular complications, emphasizing the importance of glycemic control in preventing long-term complications. Investigating the underlying pathophysiology of diabetes informs therapeutic approaches targeting glucose homeostasis and associated metabolic pathways.

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