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14th World Congress on Endocrinology & Diabetes, will be organized around the theme “Reconnoitering the Challenges Concerning Endocrinology and Diabetes Research
Venue: Holiday Inn Paris - Marne la Vallée, France”
World Endocrinology 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in World Endocrinology 2018
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Endocrinology is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones. It is also concerned with the integration of developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or behavioral activities of metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sleep, digestion, respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception caused by hormones.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
- Prehistoric Times
- The Ancient Chinese, The Egyptians, The Hindus
- The Jews and the Bible
- The Greeks, The Americans
- The Graeco-Roman Period (156 BC-576 AD), The Byzantine Period (395-1453 AD)
- Evidence of Endocrine Disorders in other Prehistoric and Ancient Communities
- L’Envoy to the Ancients, The Mediaeval Scene
- The 16th, 17th, 18th Century and the Beginning of the 19th Century
- Insulin Discovery
- The Birth of Endocrinology
- The First Four Decades of the 20th Century
- Present Trends and Outlook for the Future
- Neuroendocrinology: Neurotransmitters, Neurotransmitter and neuropeptide control of hypothalamic, pituitary and other hormones, Regulation of hormone synthesis, storage, release, transport and deactivation, Regulation of hormone levels in the bloodstream, Steroid and thyroid hormone receptors, Receptors for peptide hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, Neuropeptides: Classification, Synthesis and Function
Reproductive Endocrinology: Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility. While most REI specialists primarily focus on the treatment of infertility, reproductive endocrinologists are trained to also evaluate and treat hormonal dysfunctions in females and males outside infertility. Reproductive endocrinologists have specialty training in obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) before they undergo sub-specialty training (fellowship) in REI.
Reproductive surgery is a related specialty, where a physician in ob-gyn or urology further specializes to operate on anatomical disorders that affect fertility.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), Endometriosis, Hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction, A congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Tubal factor infertility, Male factor infertility, In vitro fertilization (IVF), Fertility preservation, Congenital uterine anomalies, Other disorders of the female reproductive tract.
- Behavioral Endocrinology: Behavioral endocrinology is the study of hormonal processes and neuroendocrine systems that influence or regulate behavior.Analytical approaches include studies of natural variation among individuals within populations of a single species, sex differences, differences among species, and experimental manipulations of either the endocrine system or behavior itself.
- Comparative Endocrinology: Comparative endocrinology is concerned with the many complexities of vertebrate and invertebrate endocrine systems at the sub-molecular, molecular, cellular and organismal levels of analysis. It is an interdisciplinary knowledge in the fields of biology and medicine concerned with the morphological and functional aspects.
- Clinical Endocrinology: Clinical endocrinology is a branch of medical sciences that involves the diagnosis, cure, prevention and treatment of irregular secretion and modified action of hormones.
- Molecular Endocrinology: Molecular endocrinology basically deals with the study of various functions of hormones secreted by different glands, at molecular level.
- Genomic Endocrinology
- Environmental Endocrinology
- Hypothalamus: Thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH), Somatostatin, Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
- Anterior pituitary: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Growth Hormone (GH), Prolactin (PRL), Adrenocortico-trophic hormone (ACTH)
- Posterior pituitary: Vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone, ADH), Oxytocin
- Thyroid gland: Thyroxine (T4), Tri-iodothyronine (T3),
- Parathyroid glands: Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Calcitonin,
- Adrenal cortex: Cortisol, Aldosterone, Androgens
- Adrenal medulla: Adrenaline and noradrenaline (the catecholamines)
- Pancreas: Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin
- Ovary: Oestrogens, Progesterone
- Testis: Testosterone
- Stomach: Gastrin, Serotonin (5-HT)
- Duodenum and Jejunum: Secretin, Cholecystokinin (CCK)
- Kidney: Erythropoietin
- Heart: Atrial natiuretic factor (ANF)
- Skin: Vitamin D
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors. Specifically, endocrine disruptors may be associated with the development of learning disabilities, severe attention deficit disorder, cognitive and brain development problems; deformations of the body (including limbs); breast cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid and other cancers; sexual development problems such as feminizing of males or masculinizing effects on females, etc.
- Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
- Endocrine system
- U-shaped dose-response curve
- Routes of exposure
- Bisphenol A (BPA)
- Bisphenol S (BPS)
- Polychlorinated biphenyls
- Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
- Perfluorooctanoic acid
- Other suspected endocrine disruptors
- Temporal trends of body burden
- Legal approach
- Environmental and human body cleanup
- Economic effects
- Acromegaly, Addison's Disease, Adrenal Cancer, Adrenal Disorders, Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer
- Cushing's Syndrome
- De Quervain's Thyroiditis
- Follicular Thyroid Cancer
- Gestational Diabetes, Goiters, Graves' Disease, Growth Disorders, Growth Hormone Deficiency
- Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Hurthle Cell Thyroid Cancer, Hyperglycemia, Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Hypoglycemia, Hypoparathyroidism, Hypothyroidism
- Low Testosterone
- Medullary Thyroid Cancer, MEN 1, MEN 2A, MEN 2B, Menopause, Metabolic Syndrome
- Obesity, Osteoporosis
- Papillary Thyroid Cancer, Parathyroid Diseases, Pheochromocytoma, Pituitary Disorders, Pituitary Tumors, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Prediabetes
- Silent Thyroiditis
- Thyroid Cancer, Thyroid Diseases, Thyroid Nodules, Thyroiditis, Turner Syndrome
Diabetes is one of the most challenging health problems in the 21st century and one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally. It is the 4th or 5th leading cause of death in most high-income countries, with ~366 million diabetics in 2011 and an estimated 552 million in 2030. The failure of beta-cells is believed to cause pre-diabetes, a condition that can lead to diabetes. Approximately 85% of people with diabetes are type 2, and of these, 90% are obese or overweight.
Endocrine disorders can be classified according to the intensity of hormonal activity and according to the origin of endocrine disorder. From the intensity of hormonal activity of endocrine gland we can distinguish Hyper function of endocrine gland, which is characterized by increased secretion of its hormone as well as by increased concentration of this hormone in circulating blood. Hypo function of endocrine gland, which is characterized by decreased secretion of its hormone as well as by decreased concentration of this hormone in circulating blood. If endocrine gland produces several kinds of hormones the symptoms resulting from hyper production or hypo production of more kinds of hormones may develop, respectively, at the same time the symptoms of hyper function resulting from overproduction of one kind of hormones and the symptoms of hypo function due to a deficiency of other kind of hormones can develop. Eufunction of endocrine gland, which is in the time of medical examination characterized by normal secretion of its hormone as well as by normal concentration of this hormone (these hormones)in circulating blood. Endocrine disease results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone called as hormone imbalance.
- Role of endocrine system in vital activity of the organism
- Etiology of endocrine disorders
- Pathogenesis of endocrine disorders
- Disorders of endocrine gland regulation
- Role of mechanisms feedback bond in endocrine disturbances
- Disorders of hormones biosynthesis and their secretion
- Disorders of transport, reception and hormones metabolism
- Disorders of endocrine functions, connected with disturbances of interaction of hormones with peripheral cells
- Disorder of endocrine functions, connected with disturbances of hormones metabolism
- Role of pituitary gland in peripheral endocrine gland function
- Hyperfunction of adenohypophysis (hyperpituitarism)
- Hyperfunction of neurohypophysis
- Hypofunction of neurohypophysis
- Disorders of adrenal gland function
- Insufficiency of adrenal cortex
- Increase of adrenals cortex function
- Adrenogenital syndrome
- Disorders of adrenal medulla function
A combination of conditions that together increase the risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Increase in worldwide prevalence of obesity-associated diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension makes it imperative that endocrinologists, cardiologists and others have a forum for new treatment and therapeutic developments. Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of developing a number of serious microvascular and macrovascular complications. Across all ages, the relative risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is ∼2 for patients with diabetes compared with the general population and CVD contributes significantly to the increased, albeit decreasing over time, mortality rate. Still, CVD accounts for up to 50% of deaths in patients with diabetes. The American Heart Association (AHA) predicts that by 2030, 40.5% of the US population will likely have some form of a CVD, and that the direct cost of treating CVDs will triple from $273 billion in 2010 to $818 billion in 2030; with indirect costs expected to increase from $172 billion to $276 billion in the same time period. These statistics are significant because Americans are developing diabetes and CVD at much younger ages than ever, due to overweight or obesity. Metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of CVD and quintuples the diabetes risk. Risk is especially high in men older than age 45 and women older than age 55.
Pediatric endocrinology deals with endocrine-related conditions in children which also includes type 1 and type 2 diabetes, growth disorders, obesity, thyroid and adrenal problems, problems of puberty, hypoglycemia, pituitary disorders, calcium and bone metabolism disorders, intersex disorders, menstrual disorders, endocrine tumors, and other conditions which are related to hormones. In children, their psychological needs are different from those of adults. Pediatric endocrinologists have extensive training and expertise in dealing with children and in treating children with endocrine disorders and hormonal problems.
- Adrenal Venous Sampling for Aldosterone, Androgen Levels, Angiography, Arginine Stimulation Test, Arterial Stimulation with Venous Sampling, Autonomic Function Tests
- Basal Acid Output (BAO), Bilateral Simultaneous Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling (IPSS) with CRF, Bone Marrow Aspirate
- C-peptide Suppression Test, Calcium Infusion Test for Medullary Cancer of the Thyroid, Captopril Test, Clomiphene Test, Clonidine Suppression Test, Combined Pituitary Function Tests (CPT), Cortisol Day Curve, CRH Test
- Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test, Exercise Test, Fasting Test, Fine Needle Aspiration of a Thyroid Nodule (FNA), Finger Size Assessment, Gastric Acid Secretion, Glucagon Test, Glucose Tolerance Test, Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone GnRH/LHRH Test
- High Dose Dexamethasone Suppression Test, Hydrocortisone Day Curve (HCDC), Hydroxycorticosterone (18-OHB) and - cortisol (18-OHF) Tests, Hyperaldosteronism Investigations, Hyperparathyroidism Investigations
- Insulin Tolerance Test, Insulin:Glucagon Ratio, Intravenous Secretin Test, Investigating Systemic Mastocytosis, Ischaemic Lactate Test
- Long Synacthen Test, Low Dose Dexamethasone Suppression Test, Measuring Skin-fold Thickness, MIBG Scan
- Octreoscan, Operative Management of Pituitary Tumours, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test for Acromegaly, Overnight Dexamethasone Suppression Test
- Pentagastrin Test for Medullary Cancer of the Thyroid, Pentolinium Suppression Test, Percutaneous Trans-hepatic Portal Venous Sampling, Peripheral Venous Sampling for Ectopic Sources of ACTH, Petrosal Sinus Sampling, Post Operative Investigation of Thyroid Carcinoma, Posture Studies, Pro-insulin and C-peptide, Prolonged Supervised Fast
- Radioactive Iodine Test, Screening for Ovulation, Selective Arterial Injection for the Localization of Gastrinomas and Insulinomas, Selenium Cholesterol Scanning for Conn's Tumours
- Short Synacthen Test, Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy
- Technetium Scan, Therapeutic Trial of ddAVP, Thyrotrophin Releasing Hormone (TRH) Test, Tolbutamide Test, Ultrasound, Visual Field Testing (Goldmann perimetry), Water Deprivation Test
Diabetes is a major lifestyle disease and a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases. It is necessary to identify the potential biomarkers associated with diabetes for the early detection of the disease and its proper management. Elevated blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, and elevated triglycerides are some of the common biomarkers of diabetes, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, interleukin-2 receptor A being the other counterparts. Apart from these available and known biomarkers, other potential biomarkers are also being searched and reported by researchers.
- Diabetes Mellitus: RBS, FBS, HbA1c, Retinal assessments
- Hypertension: BP, HR, Plasma Renin, Angiotensin I, II, Aldosterone
- Heart Failure: PRO-BNP
- Asthma/COPD: PFTs, Leukotrienes
- Cardiac Ischemia: Troponins, Myoglobins
- Endocrine Biomarkers: LCN2 (NGAL), HAVCR1 (KIM-1), HAMP (Hepcidin), GIP, PDGFB, PGF (PLGF), FLT1 (VEGFR1), FGF23, PYY, CCL2 (MCP1)
If your physician suspects that the underlying cause of a medical condition is related to hormone production, they may refer you to an endocrinologist, a doctor who specializes in endocrinology. These doctors are trained to diagnose and manage diseases that affect the glands and the hormones. An endocrinologist aims to restore hormone balance within the body's systems. A Diabetologists is often a board certified endocrinologist who has specialized training in metabolic disorders. These physicians work with patients to bring high blood sugar under control through diet, exercise, and medications. This protects patients from problems caused by high blood sugar, such as diabetic retinopathy, kidney damage, and diabetic neuropathy.
Endocrinologists and Diabetologists commonly treat the following conditions:
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology
- Clinical Endocrinology: Normal and Abnormal Sexual Development, Abnormal Puberty and Growth Problems, Amenorrhea, Anovulation and the Polycystic Ovary, Hirsutism, Menstrual Disorders, Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding, Menopause and the Perimenopausal Transition, Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy
- Infertility: Female Infertility, Recurrent Early Pregnancy Losses, Endometriosis, Male Infertility, Induction of Ovulation, Assisted Reproduction, Ectopic Pregnancy
- Contraception: Reproduction and the Thyroid , Family Planning, Sterilization, and Abortion, Oral Contraception, Long-Acting Methods of Contraception, The Intrauterine Device (IUD), Barrier Methods of Contraception
- Clinical Trails and Methods
- Treatment and Prevention
- Signs and symptoms
- Risk factors: Genetic, Dietary, Medication exposure, Infection, Environmental, Sexual
- Diagnosis: Prostate imaging, Biopsy, Tumor markers, Staging
- Prevention: Diet and lifestyle, Medications
- Management: Surveillance, Aggressive cancer, Castration-resistant, Palliative care
- Prognosis: Classification systems, Life expectancy
- Research: CRPC, Pre-clinical, Cancer models, Infections, Diagnosis
- Society and culture
Hormonal factors considerably determine the pace of bone desorption; lack of estrogen as a result of menopause will increase bone resorption, also as decreasing the deposition of new bone. Endocrinology is an important aspect of osteoporosis. Calcium metabolism additionally plays a major role in bone turnover, and deficiency of calcium and Vitamin- D ends up in impaired bone deposition; additionally, the parathyroid glands react to low calcium levels by secreting parathyroid hormone that will increase bone resorption to make sure ample calcium in the blood.
- Carbohydrate metabolism
- Bone metabolism (osteoporosis)
- Lipid metabolism
- Hormone-dependence and metabolism
- Disorders of Calcium and Phosphorous
- Pathogenesis of Metabolic Bone Diseases
- Magnesium: Normal Physiology, Hypomagnesemia, and Hypermagnesemia
- Treatment Options for Patients with Metabolic Bone Disease
- Case-Based Workshop for Bone and Mineral Metabolism
- Nephrolithiasis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Medical Management
Ageing is characterized by undesirable changes in body composition and a decline in many physiological functions, leading to reduced physical fitness and increased susceptibility to illness. It range from bone disease and water balance in all older people, to androgen deficiency in aging males, gynecomastia, and menopause. Type II diabetes in persons over 65, emphasizing the cognitive benefits of good glycemia control, and the interaction of nutrition and metabolism, focusing on hypocholesterolemia, obesity, the anorexia of aging, trace elements, and vitamins. The aging of the sympathetic nervous system and its impact on hypertension in the elderly is also covered. Timely and authoritative, Endocrinology of Aging offers endocrinologists, geriatricians, and primary care physicians critical insight into the endocrine problems of our rapidly growing elderly population.
- Biological Theories of Aging
- Hypothalamic Growth Hormone-IGF-I Axis
- Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Aging
- Stress, Hormones, and Aging
- Water Balance in Older Persons
- Bone Disease and Aging
- Paget’s Disease of Bone
- Testosterone, Tithonusism, Gynecomastia, Menopause
- Diabetes in the Elderly
- Evaluation and Management of Obesity in the Elderly
- Nutrition, Exercise, and Aging
- The Sympathetic Nervous System
- Metabolic and Cardiovascular Factors Contributing to Hypertension in the Elderly
Diabetes is one of the most challenging health problems in the 21st century and one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally. It is the 4th or 5th leading cause of death in most high-income countries, with ~366 million diabetics in 2011 and an estimated 552 million in 2030. On the other hand, obesity has also become a world-wide epidemic. Obesity is a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, with pancreatic beta cells compensating for insulin resistance by augmenting insulin secretion. The failure of beta-cells is believed to cause pre-diabetes, a condition that can lead to diabetes. Approximately 85% of people with diabetes are type 2, and of these, 90% are obese or overweight. Diabetes & obesity are major contributors to various other chronic diseases such as coronary artery diseases, myocardial infarction, hypertension, dyslipidemia and a number of other complicated disorders mounting evidence shows that a Mediterranean style-diet may be useful in preventing and treating chronic diseases related to mild chronic inflammation such as visceral (abdominal) obesity, metabolic syndrome, and Type 2 diabetes.
- Signs and symptoms
- Diet, Sedentary lifestyle, Genetics, Other illnesses, Social determinants, Gut bacteria
- Stress, Overweight, Sedentary lifestyle, Aging, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Coronary heart disease, Lipodystrophy, Psychiatric illnesses
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex. Transgender people are sometimes called transsexual if they desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another. Transgender is also an umbrella term: in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex (trans men and trans women), it may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine (people who are genderqueer or non-binary, including bigender, pangender, genderfluid, or agender). Being transgender is independent of sexual orientation: transgender people may identify as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, asexual, or may decline to label their sexual orientation. The term transgender is also distinguished from intersex, a term that describes people born with physical sex characteristics "that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies". The counterpart of transgender is cisgender, which describes persons whose gender identity or expression matches their assigned sex.