Pathophysiology: Endocrinology and Diabetes

Endocrine disorders can be classified according to the intensity of hormonal activity and according to the origin of endocrine disorder. From the intensity of hormonal activity of endocrine gland we can distinguish hyper function of endocrine gland, which is characterized by increased secretion of its hormone as well as by increased concentration of this hormone in circulating blood. Hypo function of endocrine gland, which is characterized by decreased secretion of its hormone as well as by decreased concentration of this hormone in circulating blood.

If endocrine gland produces several kinds of hormones the symptoms resulting from hyper production or hypo production of more kinds of hormones may develop, respectively, at the same time the symptoms of hyper function resulting from overproduction of one kind of hormones and the symptoms of hypo function due to a deficiency of other kind of hormones can develop. Eufunction of endocrine gland, which is in the time of medical examination characterized by normal secretion of its hormone as well as by normal concentration of this hormone in circulating blood.

Endocrine disease results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone called as hormone imbalance. Diabetic Ketoacidosis is caused in type 1 diabetes where there is complete lack of insulin and reliance on fatty acids for energy. This uncontrolled lipid breakdown leads to formation of ketones and causes acidosis and ketonemia. This is a medical emergency.

Non-Kenotic Hyperosmolarity – this is caused due to extreme rise of blood sugar. This is seen in type 2 diabetics. There is just enough insulin to suppress ketone synthesis. The high blood sugar leads to excessive concentration or osmolality of blood which in turn leads to dieresis and collapse of the blood vessels and cardiovascular shock. This is a medical emergency.

 

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