Endocrinology Glands and Hormones

Endocrine Glands

  • Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is located in the brain and links the nervous and endocrine systems to each other.
  • Pineal Gland: The pineal gland is a small, pine-cone shaped endocrine gland in the brain. It produces melatonin.
  • Pituitary gland: It is located at the base of the brain and is closely connected to the hypothalamus.
  • Thyroid: The butter-fly shaped thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands. The thyroid gland is in the front of the neck, just below the thyroid cartilage.
  • Parathyroid Gland: The parathyroid gland controls calcium levels in the blood. The parathyroid is a small of glands around by the thyroid gland.
  • Thymus: The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. The thymus “educates” T-lymphocytes (T cells), which are critical cells of the adaptive immune system.
  • Adrenal Glands: The small, triangular adrenal glands located in the kidneys. Each is divided into two distinct anatomic and functional organs that is adrenal cortex and adrenal Medulla.
  • Pancreas: The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive system and endocrine system. It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide and a digestive organ secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that help with the absorption of nutrients and digestion in the small intestine.
  • Ovaries: The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs in the female reproductive system.
  • Testes: The testicle is the male gonad. The primary functions of the testes are to produce inhibin, sperm and androgens, primarily testosterone.

Endocrine Hormones

  • Luteinizing Hormone: This is a pituitary hormone that helps regulate the function of the reproductive organs. It stimulates ovulation to release the egg in the woman’s ovaries.
  • Prolactin: This is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the production of milk in the breast. It is one of several hormones that stimulate milk production or lactation.
  • Oxytocin: Oxytocin is a pituitary hormone that stimulates muscle contractions in the uterus during childbirth. These contractions cause the release of more oxytocin.
  • Glucagon: The hormone glucagon increases the level of sugar in the blood. It plays a vital part in maintaining the correct blood sugar level.
  • Reproductive Hormones: Reproductive hormones control the reproductive development of boys and girls.
  • Female Reproductive Hormone: Estrogen is the female hormone made mainly in the ovaries. It not only makes the girl reproductive organs develop, and controls her monthly menstrual cycle. Progesterone is the female hormone that prepares the girls uterus for pregnancy every month.
  • Male Reproductive Hormone: The male reproductive system consists of the penis, scrotum, and the 2 testes. A male reproductive system creates sperm cells that combined with a female egg to create a new human life. The testes and scrotum hang outside the body where it is cooler because it improves sperm production.
  • Epinephrine: Epinephrine is a hormone that works without nervous system to prepare our body to cope with danger or stress. If you’re suddenly scared, your heart pounds, your breathing becomes steep and rapid.
  • Insulin: Insulin is a hormone that reduces the level of sugar in our blood. Insulin is a protein made by the pancreas. It is released when the blood sugar level rises and reduces the sugar in 2 ways. First it makes insulin take up the glucose.

 

 

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